Whether or not we as software developers like to admit it, most (if not all) of the applications we write need to change over time. We fix bugs, and we add, modify, and remove features. In other words, we spend most of our time either fixing or extending applications.
Sometimes we extend our applications by changing the actual code, sometimes we have other ad hoc extension mechanisms in place – a text file here, a directory of scripts there. As applications grow, they often end up with numerous places where they can be extended, but with a different extension mechanism at each one. This makes it hard for developers who want to extend the application to know a) where they can add extensions, and b) how to add them.
Envisage attempts to address this problem by admitting up front that applications need to be extensible, and by providing a standard way for developers to advertise the places where extension can occur (known as extension points), and for other developers to contribute extensions to them.
In Envisage, extension points and the extensions contributed to them are stored in the extension registry. To see how extension points actually work, let’s take a look at the Message of the Day example included in the Envisage distribution. This example shows how to build a very simple application that prints a (hopefully witty, educational, or inspiring) “Message of the Day” chosen at random from a list of contributed messages.
Declaring an Extension Point¶
Plugins declare their extension points in one of two ways:
- Declaratively - using the ‘ExtensionPoint’ trait type
- Programmatically - by overriding the ‘get_extension_points’ method.
In the MOTD example, the acme.motd plugin needs to advertise an extension point that allows other plugins to contribute new messages. Using the ‘ExtensionPoint’ trait type, the plugin would look like this:
class MOTDPlugin(Plugin): """ The MOTD Plugin. """" ... # The messages extension point. messages = ExtensionPoint( List(IMessage), id='acme.motd.messages', desc = """ This extension point allows you to contribute messages to the 'Message Of The Day'. """ ) ...
Overriding the ‘get_extension_points’ method might look somthing like:
class MOTDPlugin(Plugin): """ The MOTD Plugin. """" ... def get_extension_points(self): """ Return the plugin's extension points. """ messages = ExtensionPoint( List(IMessage), id='acme.motd.messages', desc = """ This extension point allows you to contribute messages to the 'Message Of The Day'. """ ) return [messages] ...
Either way, this tells us three things about the extension point:
- That the extension point is called “acme.motd.messages”
- That every item in a list of contributions to the extension point must implement the IMessage interface.
- That the extension point allows you to contribute messages!
Making contributions to an Extension Point¶
First of all, we have to create the messages that we want to add. Remember that when the acme.motd plugin advertised the extension point, it told us that every contribution had to implement the IMessage interface. Happily, there is a class that does just that already defined for us (Message) and so we create a simple module (messages.py) and add our Message instances to it:
messages = [ ... Message( author = "Martin Fowler", text = "Any fool can write code that a computer can understand. Good" " programmers write code that humans can understand." ) Message( author = "Chet Hendrickson", text = "The rule is, 'Do the simplest thing that could possibly" " work', not the most stupid." ) ... ]
Now we create a plugin for the acme.motd.software_quotes package and tell Envisage about the messages that we have just created. Again there are are two ways that a plugin can do this:
- Declaratively - using the ‘contributes_to’ trait metadata
- Programmatically - by overriding the ‘get_extensions’ method.
The declarative version looks like this:
class SoftwareQuotesPlugin(Plugin): """ The software quotes plugin. """ ... # The 'contributes_to' trait metadata tells Envisage the ID of the # extension point that this trait contributes to. messages = List(contributes_to='acme.motd.messages') def _messages_default(self): """ Trait initializer. """ # It is good practise to only import your extensions when they # are actually required. from messages import messages return messages ...
The messages are contributed simply by creating a list trait and setting its “contributes_to” metadata to the ID of the extension point that we want to contribute to. All we have to do then is to intialize the trait with our messages and “Job done”!
Note that if a plugin changes a list of contributions then the extension registry will be updated automatically, and anybody that is consuming the extensions will be notified accordingly.
The programmatic version looks like this:
class SoftwareQuotesPlugin(Plugin): """ The software quotes plugin. """ ... def get_extensions(self, extension_point_id): """ Get the plugin's contributions to an extension point. """ if extension_point_id == 'acme.motd.messages': from messages import messages extensions = messages else: extensions =  return extensions ...
The difference between this and the declarative version is that the application is not automatically notified if the plugin wants to change its contributions to an extension point. To do this manually fire an ‘extension_point_changed’ event.
Retrieving the contributions to an Extension Point¶
OK, here’s where we are so far: One plugin (acme.motd) has advertised the fact that it has an extension point called “acme.motd.messages”, and that the contributions to the extension point must implement the IMessage interface. Another plugin (acme.motd.software_quotes) has kindly offered to contribute some messages about software development. Now we need to know how to retrieve the contributed messages at runtime.
In the MOTD example, the messages are retrieved by the acme.motd plugin:
class MOTDPlugin(Plugin): """ The MOTD Plugin. """" ... # The messages extension point. messages = ExtensionPoint( List(IMessage), id='acme.motd.messages', desc = """ This extension point allows you to contribute messages to the 'Message Of The Day'. """ ) ... def _motd_default(self): """ Trait initializer. """ # Only do imports when you need to! from motd import MOTD return MOTD(messages=self.messages) ...
As you can see, all we have to do is to access the messages extension point trait when we create our instance of the MOTD class.
This example demonstrates a common pattern in Envisage application development, in that contributions to extension points are most often used by plugin implementations to create and initialize services (in this case, an instance of the MOTD class).
The extension registry can also be accessed through the following method on the IApplication interface:
def get_extensions(self, extension_point): """ Return a list containing all contributions to an extension point. Return an empty list if the extension point does not exist. """
For example, to get the messages contributed to the “acme.motd.messages” extension point you would use:
messages = application.get_extensions('acme.motd.messages')
Note however, that using the ExtensionPoint trait type, adds the ability to validate the contributions – in this case, to make sure that they are all objects that implement (or can be adapted to) the IMessage interface. It also automatically connects the trait so that the plugin will receive trait change events if extensions are added/removed to/from the extension point at runtime.